Cisco phone system software cac

cisco phone system software cac

Enhanced Location CAC Design and Deployment Recommendations and Considerations. The Location Bandwidth Manager (LBM) is a Unified CM Feature Service. It is. Call Admission Control (CAC) is a deterministic and informed decision that is made before a network session is established and is based on whether the required. The Enhanced Location Call Admission Control (CAC) feature improves the The enhanced CAC feature provides a new service, called Location. MEGA BLOKS LIL BUILDING WORKBENCH Сообщаю Для вас, что.

It is critical to name locations consistently in all clusters, to ensure the global network model assembles correctly. Follow the principle of same location, same name; different location, different name. If there is a conflict in bandwidth capacity or weight assignment on the common links or locations, the local cluster uses the minimum of the assigned values.

An Enhanced Location CAC LBM replication network is used to replicate the model topology, and bandwidth deduction across multiple clusters, and within the cluster. Locations Media Resource Audio Bit Rate Policy: This parameter determines the bit rate value to deduct from the audio bandwidth pools within and between the locations of the parties for an audio-only call when a Media Resource such as a transcoder is inserted into the media path and for more complex scenarios.

Cannot have a link connecting to other user defined locations, so bandwidth cannot be deducted between the Shadow location and other user defined locations. Has no intra-location bandwidth capacities, so bandwidth cannot be deducted within the Shadow location.

All other types of devices are supported only when assigned to ordinary fixed Locations. Unified CM and LBM do not manage bandwidth for media resources; calls are modeled and bandwidth reserved between the locations of end devices only. For cases in which media resources change the bandwidth requirement for a call, the customer has the option to change a global parameter setting that determines whether the minimum or maximum bandwidth is reserved.

The model created by the system is not perfectly synchronized at all times; excess calls may be admitted due to race conditions. Use conservative bandwidth allocations in the model to allow for this possibility. During network failure conditions, the bandwidth reservation path calculated by Unified CM may not accurately reflect network conditions.

There is no satisfactory way to allow for this scenario in the model. If video capabilities are enabled, then bandwidth for audio will be allocated from video. LBM is able to secure its intercluster communications between LBM hubs and in order to support backward compatibility and upgrades LBM has an option to configure how intercluster LBM hubs communicate with each other. To meet these requirements, the enterprise service parameter, LBM Security Mode, is available with the following values:.

The default setting is Insecure. And when this service parameter is changed, the LBM hubs in that cluster need to be restarted so that connections with the new security setting can be attempted. This is an intermediate step while converting all the clusters from insecure to secure mode or secure to insecure mode.

Change the parameter to Mixed without losing communication except when the LBM hubs are restarted. After all the clusters are moved into Mixed and all LBM hubs are confirmed to have secure connections to all other hubs, switch to Secure mode.

Similar steps involving intermediate mixed state can be followed to move to insecure from secure. LBMs has one port for secure connections , one for insecure connections The insecure port has been defined since Unified CM 9. Secure port is added for Unified CM Release 9. The communication between LBMs within the cluster remains through the insecure connections. If the Enterprise service parameter is set to Mixed, an LBM hub in this cluster attempts both secure and insecure connections to remote LBM hubs, which is also based on validation and availability of local and remote security certificates.

Secure connections are based on validation and availability of local and remote security certificates. In Unified CM Release 9. For Unified CM Release 9. Therefore there are up to 4 connections for the Mixed Mode service parameter for LBM hubs connecting between clusters. LBM selects a secure connection to send information, if a secure connection is available in its connection pool. If a secure connection is not available, but an insecure connection is available, LBM sends information on the insecure connection.

Under race conditions when the connections are being established, it is possible that initially there are only insecure connections available. However, LBM automatically switches to secure connections when those become available. This logic applies to connections coming and going during the application lifetime.

This illustrates one reason why mixed connections are inherently insecure. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book Updated: November 12, Step 2 Create an LBM group.

Step 3 Model the network using locations and links. Step 4 Add the locations for the system. Step 5 Assign intra-location bandwidth to the location, if the default of unlimited bandwidth is not desired. Step 6 Add links from one location to other locations inter-location. It could contain endpoints or simply serve as a transit location between links for WAN network modeling Bandwidth Allocation: The amount of bandwidth allocated in the model for each type of traffic: audio, video, and immersive video Telepresence.

Only one effective path between a pair of end locations is used Locations Bandwidth Manager: A service that assembles a network model from configured location and link data in one or more clusters, determines the effective paths between pairs of locations, determines whether to admit calls between a pair of locations based on the availability of bandwidth for each type of call, and deducts reserves bandwidth for the duration of each call that is admitted.

Limitations of Bandwidth Management Prior to Release 9. Figure 1. Hub and Spoke Location Model Many customer networks do not conform to the Hub and Spoke location model; therefore customers need to have a Location CAC mechanism that better models the path that media actually travel through the network. Enhancement to Bandwidth Management Solution The bandwidth management solution has been enhanced to support complex network models, including multi-tier, multi-hop topology.

Enhanced network model is structured as follow: When two locations are directly connected, a link is modeled between them. The following graphic represents a simple Location CAC topology model. Figure 2. Note The more accurate and detailed the model of the network is, the more effective the management of the bandwidth and avoidance of congestion is within the network.

Note The intra-location bandwidth allocations are unlimited by default. Main functions of Location Bandwidth Manager are: Model Formation and path determination Replication of the model to other LBMs within the cluster, and between clusters Servicing bandwidth requests from Unified CM Replication of bandwidth deductions to other LBMs within the cluster, and between clusters Provide configured and dynamic information on request to Serviceability Update Location RTMT counters When LBM service is started, it reads configured location information from the local database.

Figure 3. For split data center deployment, activate at least one LBM for each data center. Connect to a local LBM service when available. Note The amount of intersystem bandwidth replication messages can be significant. Note When modeling the network, use conservative bandwidth capacity assumptions to allow for the fact that calls may be admitted in excess of those for which bandwidth is deducted. Intercluster Location Call Admission Call Configuration Considerations The following are some considerations when configuring intercluster location CAC between a local cluster and a remote cluster: The local administrator must configure the remote locations adjacent to local locations and the links between local and remote locations.

Note If there is a conflict in bandwidth capacity or weight assignment on the common links or locations, the local cluster uses the minimum of the assigned values. Enhanced Call Admission Control Limitations Limitations The model created by the system is not perfectly synchronized at all times; excess calls may be admitted due to race conditions.

An LBM hub attempts to open a connection to remote LBM hubs: If the Enterprise service parameter is set to Mixed, an LBM hub in this cluster attempts both secure and insecure connections to remote LBM hubs, which is also based on validation and availability of local and remote security certificates. Was this Document Helpful? Yes No Feedback. Activate the LBM service. Create an LBM group. Model the network using locations and links.

It is also important make sure LBM is no more than a primary and secondary in any given deployment. This means that LBM should not have the load of more than 2 CallManager services during failure scenarios, and the load of only one CallManager service during normal operation. The LBM group can be used to configure a co-resident LBM as the primary, another local on the same LAN LBM as secondary, and lastly the service parameter as a failsafe mechanism to ensure that all calls processed by that CallManager service do not fail.

There are many reasons for these recommendations. It is difficult, at best, to determine the load of any LBM because it is directly related to the call-processing load of the CallManager service that it is serving. There are also considerations for delay. As soon as an LBM is off-box from a CallManager service, there is an added delay caused by packetization and processing for every call serviced by the CallManager service. Compounding call-processing delay can bring the overall delay budget to an unacceptable level for any given call flow to a ringing state, and result in a poor user experience.

Following these design recommendations will reduce the overall call-processing delay. Assuming that the LBM is handling the load of the co-resident CallManager service, and during failure of another CallManager service, this would equate to the load of 2 call processing servers on a single LBM. In intercluster Enhanced Location CAC, each cluster manages its locally configured topology of locations and links and then propagates this local topology to other remote clusters that are part of the LBM intercluster replication network.

Through this process the global topology is then identical across all clusters, providing each cluster a global view of enterprise network topology for end-to-end CAC. Figure illustrates the concept of a global topology with a simplistic hub-and-spoke network topology as an example. Figure shows two clusters, Cluster 1 and Cluster 2, each with a locally configured hub-and-spoke network topology.

The overlay is accomplished through common locations, which are locations that are configured with the same name. This is an example of a simple network topology, but more complex topologies would be processed in the same way. LBM hubs create a separate full mesh with one another and replicate their local cluster's topology to other remote clusters.

Each cluster effectively receives the topologies from every other remote cluster in order to create a global topology. Each replication group can reference up to three bootstrap LBMs. Once the LBM hub group is configured on each cluster, the designated LBM hubs will create the full-mesh intercluster replication network. Figure illustrates an intercluster replication network configuration with LBM hub groups set up between three clusters Leaf Cluster 1, Leaf Cluster 2, and a Session Management Edition SME cluster to form the intercluster replication network.

The SME cluster is used here only as an example and is not required for this specific setup. The SME cluster could simply be another regular cluster handling endpoint registrations. This creates the full-mesh replication network. This is just an example configuration to illustrate the components of the intercluster LBM replication network. LBM hubs can also be configured to encrypt their communications. This allows intercluster ELCAC to be deployed in environments where it is critical to encrypt traffic between clusters because the links between clusters might reside over unprotected networks.

For further information on configuring encrypted signaling between LBM hubs, refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager product documentation available at. As mentioned previously, common locations are locations that are named the same across clusters. Common locations play a key role in how the LBM creates the global topology and how it associates a single location across multiple clusters.

A location with the same name between two or more clusters is considered the same location and is thus a shared location across those clusters. So if a location is meant to be shared between multiple clusters, it is required to have exactly the same name.

After replication, the LBM will check for configuration discrepancies across locations and links. Any discrepancy in bandwidth value or weight between common locations and links can be seen in serviceability, and the LBM calculates the locations and link paths with the most restrictive values for bandwidth and the lowest value least cost for weight.

Common locations and links can be configured across clusters for a number of different reasons. You might have a number of clusters that manage devices in the same physical site and use the same WAN uplinks, and therefore the same location needs to be configured on each cluster in order to associate that location to the local devices on each cluster.

You might also have clusters that manage their own topology, yet these topologies interconnect at specific locations and you will have to configure these locations as common locations across each cluster so that, when the global topology is being created, the clusters have the common interconnecting locations and links on each cluster to link each remote topology together effectively. Figure illustrates linking topologies together and shows the common topology that each cluster shares. Alternatively, Regional 1 and Regional 2 could be the common locations configured on all clusters instead of DC, as is illustrated in Figure The key to topology mapping from cluster to cluster is to ensure that at least one cluster has a common location with another cluster so that the topologies interconnect accordingly.

In order to pass this location information across clusters, the SIP intercluster trunk ICT must be assigned to the "shadow" location. The shadow location cannot have a link to other locations, and therefore no bandwidth can be reserved between the shadow location and other locations. Figure illustrates an example of a call between two clusters and some details about the information passed. This is only to illustrate how location information is passed from cluster to cluster and how bandwidth deductions are made.

In Figure , Cluster 1 sends an invite to Cluster 2 and populates the call-info header with the calling parties location name and Video-Traffic-Class, among other pertinent information such as unique call-ID. If it is successful, Cluster 2 will replicate the reservation and extend the call to the terminating device and return a ringing with the location information of the called party back to Cluster 1. If it is successful, it too continues with the call flow.

Because both clusters use the same information in the call-info header, they will deduct bandwidth for the same call using the same call-ID, thus avoiding any double bandwidth deductions. In order to avoid configuration overhead, a Location and Link Management Cluster can be configured to manage all locations and links in the global topology. All other clusters uniquely configure the locations that they require for location-to-device association and do not configure links or any bandwidth values other than unlimited.

It should be noted that the Location and Link Management Cluster is a design concept and is simply any cluster that is configured with the entire global topology of locations and links, while all other clusters in the LBM replication network are configured only with locations set to unlimited bandwidth values and without configured links. The designated Location and Link Management Cluster has the entire global topology with locations, links, and bandwidth values; and once those values are replicated, all clusters use those values because they are the most restrictive.

This design alleviates configuration overhead in deployments where a large number of common locations are required across multiple clusters. All locations within the enterprise will be configured in this cluster. All bandwidth values and weights for all locations and links will be managed in this cluster. This link information will come from the management cluster when intercluster Enhanced Location CAC is enabled.

In Figure there are three leaf clusters, each with devices in only a regional and remote locations. SME has the entire global topology configured with locations and links, and intercluster LBM replication is enabled between all four clusters.

None of the clusters in this example share locations, although all of the locations are common locations because SME has configured the entire location and link topology. Note that Leaf 1, Leaf 2, and Leaf 3 configure only locations that they require to associate to devices and endpoints, while SME has the entire global topology configured.

After intercluster replication, all clusters will have the global topology. Since TelePresence endpoints now provide a diverse range of collaborative experiences from the desktop to the conference room, Enhanced Location CAC includes support to provide CAC for TelePresence immersive video calls.

Video Call Traffic Class is an attribute that is assigned to all endpoints, and that can also be enabled on SIP trunks, to determine the video classification type of the endpoint or trunk. For TelePresence endpoints there is a non-configurable Video Call Traffic Class of immersive assigned to the endpoint. A SIP trunk can be classified as desktop, immersive, or mixed video in order to deduct bandwidth reservations of a SIP trunk call.

All other endpoints and trunks have a non-configurable Video Call Traffic Class of desktop video. More detail on endpoint and trunk classification is provided in the subsections below. All third-party video endpoints require manual configuration of the endpoints themselves and are statically configured, meaning they do not change QoS marking depending on the call type; therefore, it is important to match the Enhanced Location CAC bandwidth allocation to the correct DSCP.

Unified CM achieves this by deducting desktop video calls from the Video Bandwidth location and link allocation for devices that have a Video Call Traffic Class of desktop. End-to-end TelePresence immersive video calls are deducted from the Immersive Video Bandwidth location and link allocation for devices or trunks with the Video Call Traffic Class of immersive.

This ensures that end-to-end desktop video and immersive video calls are marked correctly and counted correctly for call admission control. For calls between desktop devices and TelePresence immersive devices, bandwidth is deducted from both the Video Bandwidth and the Immersive Video Bandwidth location and link allocations.

Telepresence endpoints are defined in Unified CM by the device type. When a device is added in Unified CM, any device with TelePresence in the name of the device type is classified as immersive , as are the generic single-screen and multi-screen room systems. This will display all of the device types that are classified as immersive.

All other endpoints have a fixed Video Call Traffic Class of desktop due to their lack of the non-configurable immersive attribute. Bandwidth reservations are determined by the classification of endpoints in a video call, and they deduct bandwidth from the locations and links bandwidth pools as listed in Table A SIP trunk can also be classified as desktop, immersive, or mixed video in order to deduct bandwidth reservations of a SIP trunk call, and the classification is determined by the calling device type and Video Call Traffic Class of the SIP trunk.

Bandwidth reservations are determined by the classification of an endpoint and a SIP trunk in a video call, and they deduct bandwidth from the locations and links bandwidth pools as listed in Table By default, all video calls from either immersive or desktop endpoints are deducted from the locations and links video bandwidth pool.

After this is enabled, immersive and desktop video calls will be deducted out of their respective pools. As described earlier, a video call between a Unified Communications video endpoint desktop Video Call Traffic Class and a TelePresence endpoint immersive Video Call Traffic Class will mark their media asymmetrically and, when immersive video CAC is enabled, will deduct bandwidth from both video and immersive locations and links bandwidth pools.

Figure illustrates this. The following call flows depict the expected behavior of locations and links bandwidth deductions when the Unified CM service parameter Use Video BandwidthPool for Immersive Video Calls is set to False.

End-to-end immersive video endpoint calls deduct bandwidth from the immersive bandwidth pool of the locations and the links along the effective path. End-to-end desktop video endpoint calls deduct bandwidth from the video bandwidth pool of the locations and the links along the effective path. Interoperating calls between desktop video endpoints and TelePresence video endpoints deduct bandwidth from both video and immersive locations and the links bandwidth pools along the effective path.

Bandwidth is deducted along the effective path from the immersive locations and the links bandwidth pools for the calls that are end-to-end immersive and from both video and immersive locations and the links bandwidth pools for the call that is desktop-to-immersive. Figure illustrates an end-to-end immersive video call across clusters, which deducts bandwidth from the immersive bandwidth pool of the locations and links along the effective path.

Figure illustrates an end-to-end desktop video call across clusters, which deducts bandwidth from the video bandwidth pool of the locations and links along the effective path. Figure illustrates a desktop video endpoint calling a TelePresence endpoint across clusters.

When Unified CM negotiates an audio or video call, a number of separate streams are established between the endpoints involved in the call. For video calls with content sharing, this can result in as many as 8 or possibly more unidirectional streams. For an audio-only call typically the bare minimum is 2 streams, one in each direction.

This section discusses bandwidth utilization on the network and how Unified CM accounts for this in admission control bandwidth accounting. For the purpose of the discussion in this section, please note the following:. See Figure Note that traffic is not always routed symmetrically in the WAN. Check with your network administrator when necessary to ensure that admission control is correctly accounting for the media as it is routed in the network over the WAN.

RTCP is quite common in most call flows and is commonly used for statistical information about the streams. It is also used to synchronize audio in video calls to ensure proper lip-sync. In some cases it can be enabled or disabled on the endpoint. For example, if you have a G. This calculation is not part of Enhanced Location CAC deductions but should be part of network provisioning.

Therefore, classification based on UDP port ranges is possible. In Figure two desktop video phones have established an audio-only call. In this call flow four streams are negotiated: two audio streams illustrated by a single bidirectional arrow and two RTCP streams also illustrated by a bidirectional arrow. The actual bandwidth consumed at Layer 3 in the network with RTCP enabled would be between 80 kbps and 84 kbps, as discussed previously in this section.

In Figure two desktop video phones have established a video call. In this call flow eight streams are negotiated: two audio streams, two audio-associated RTCP streams, two video streams, and two video-associated RTCP streams. Again for this illustration one bidirectional arrow is used to depict two unidirectional streams.

This particular call is kbps, with 64 kbps of G. RTCP is overhead that should be accounted for in provisioning, depending on how it is marked or re-marked by the network. The example in Figure is of a video call with presentation sharing. This is a more complex call with regard to the number of associated streams and bandwidth allocation when compared to bandwidth used on the network, and therefore it must be provisioned in the network.

When a video call is established between two video endpoints, audio and video streams are established and bandwidth is deducted for the negotiated rate. Unified CM uses regions to determine the maximum bit rate for the call. For example, with a Cisco TelePresence System EX90 at the highest detail of p at 30 frames per second fps , the negotiated rate between regions would have to be set at 6. EX90s used in this scenario would average around 6. When the endpoints start presentation sharing during the session, BFCP is negotiated between the endpoints and a new video stream is enabled at either 5 fps or 30 fps, depending on endpoint configuration.

When this occurs, the endpoints will throttle down their main video stream to include the presentation video so that the entire session does not use more than the allocated bandwidth of 6. Thus, the average bandwidth consumption remains the same with or without presentation sharing. Note The presentation video stream is typically unidirectional in the direction of the person or persons viewing the presentation.

Telepresence immersive and office endpoints such as the Cisco TelePresence System , , , and TX Series that negotiate a call between one another function a little differently in the sense that the video for presentation sharing is an additional bandwidth above and beyond what is allocated for the main video session, and thus it is not deducted from Enhanced Location CAC. In Figure the telepresence immersive video endpoints establish a video call and enable presentation sharing.

The LBM deducts 4 Mbps for the main audio and video session from the immersive pool for the call, and video is established between the endpoints. When presentation sharing is activated, the two endpoints exchange BFCP and negotiate a presentation video stream at 5 fps or 30 fps in one direction, depending on the endpoint configuration. At 5 fps the average bandwidth used is approximately kbps of additional bandwidth overhead. This bandwidth is above and beyond the 4 Mbps that was allocated for the video call and should be provisioned in the network.

At 30 fps the average bit rate of the presentation video is approximately 1. Therefore the actual streams on the wire may be different than what is expressed in the illustration, but the concept of additional bandwidth overhead for the presentation video is the same.

Figure illustrates the migration of bandwidth information. For transcoding insertion, the bit rate is different on each leg of the connection. For dual stack MTP insertion, the bit rate is different on each connection but the bandwidth is different due to IP header overhead. The service parameter Locations Media Resource Audio Bit Rate Policy determines whether the largest or smallest bandwidths should be used along the locations and links path.

Lowest Bit Rate default or Highest Bit Rate can be used to manage these differences in bandwidth consumption. This allows the home cluster to associate the correct location to the visiting phone during registration. There are no other requirements or any specific configuration aspects to employ. This section describes how to apply the call admission control mechanisms to various IP WAN topologies. Enhanced Location CAC is still a statically defined mechanism that does not query the network, and therefore the administrator still needs to provision Unified CM accordingly whenever network changes affect admission control.

This is where a network-aware mechanism such as RSVP can fill that gap and provide support for dynamic changes in the network, such as when network failures occur and media streams take different paths in the network. This is often the case in designs with load-balanced dual or multi-homed WAN uplinks or unequally sized primary and backup WAN uplinks.

In this section explores a few typical topologies and explains how Enhanced Location CAC can be designed to manage them. Figure illustrates a simple dual data center WAN network design where each remote site has a single WAN uplink to each data center. The data centers are interconnected by a high-speed WAN connection that is over-provisioned for data traffic.

Although you could configure this multi-path topology in Enhanced Location CAC, only one path would be calculated as the effective path and would remain statically so until the weight metric was changed. A better way to support this type of network topology is to configure the two data centers as one data center or hub location in Enhanced Location CAC and configure a single link to each remote site location.

This location will not have any devices associated to it, but all of the sites that have uplinks to this cloud will have links configured to the location. In this way the MPLS cloud serves as a transit location for interconnecting multiple variable-sized bandwidth WAN uplinks to other remote locations. The illustrations in this section depict a number of different MPLS networks and their equivalent locations and links model.

Figure shows two MPLS clouds that serve as transit locations interconnecting the campus location where servers, endpoints, and devices are located, with remote locations where only endpoints and devices are located.

The campus also connects to both clouds. Each link to the MPLS cloud from the remote location may be sized according to the WAN uplink bandwidth allocated for audio, vide, and immersive media. This design is typical in enterprises that span continents, with a separate MPLS cloud from different providers in each geographical location. In any case, this design is equivalent to the dual data center design where a single location represents both clouds and a single link represents the lowest capacity link of the two.

Admission control and QoS are complementary and in most cases co-dependent. Group Policy Objects are very similar in function to network access lists in their ability to mark traffic. QoS is critical to admission control because without it the network has no way of prioritizing the media to ensure that admitted traffic gets the network resources that it requires above that of non-admitted or other traffic classifications.

In Unified CM's CallManager service parameters for QoS, there are five main QoS settings that are applicable to endpoint media classification and that also allow immersive and desktop classified endpoints see the section on Enhanced Location CAC for TelePresence Immersive Video to have different QoS markings for their media based on their video classification of immersive or desktop. The DSCP for Video Calls setting is used for the audio and video traffic of any device that is classified as "desktop.

When designing Enhanced Location CAC for video, follow the design recommendations and considerations listed in this section. When deploying Enhanced Location CAC for immersive video calls, consider the affects of DSCP marking for both QoS classes, as the interoperable calls where an immersive classified endpoint is connected with a desktop classified endpoint are by default asymmetrically marked.

AF41 and CS4 are default configurations in Unified CM, and changes to these defaults should align with the QoS configuration in the network infrastructure, as applicable. Figure illustrates the media marking and bandwidth accounting. Enhanced Location CAC for TelePresence-to-UC video interoperable calls deducts bandwidth from both the video and immersive locations and links bandwidth pools, as illustrated in Figure This is by design to ensure that both types of QoS classified streams have the bandwidth required for media in both directions of the path between endpoints.

In asymmetrically marked flows, however, the full allocated bit rate of the AF41 class is used in one direction but not the other. In the other direction, the full allocated bit rate is marked CS4. This does not represent additional bandwidth consumption but simply a difference in marking and queuing in the network for each QoS class.

This manner of bandwidth accounting is required to protect each flow in each direction. If TelePresence video CS4 has been provisioned in the network paths separately from Unified Communications video AF41 and TelePresence is largely scheduled and in environments where the scheduling of calls is controlled and the utilization of TelePresence is deterministic, then immersive video bandwidth for locations and links can be set to unlimited to avoid the double bandwidth CAC calculations.

This ensures that TelePresence-to-TelePresence calls always go through unimpeded and will not be subject to admission control, while desktop video and TelePresence-to-desktop video calls will be subject to admission control and accounted for in the video bandwidth allocation. Figure illustrates SME as a location and link management cluster. The entire location and link global topology is configured and managed in SME, and the leaf clusters configure locally only the locations that they require to associate with the end devices.

When intercluster Enhanced Location CAC is enabled and locations and links are replicated, each leaf cluster will receive the global topology from SME and overlay this on their configured topology and use the global topology for call admission control.

This simplifies configuration and location and link management across multiple clusters, and it diminishes the potential for misconfiguration across clusters. For more information and details on the design and deployment see the section on Location and Link Management Cluster. Leaf 1 has been configured in a traditional hub and spoke, where devices are managed at various remote sites.

This allows the endpoint or client application to register securely to Unified CM without the need for the entire operating system hosting the application to have access to the enterprise network. Cisco Expressway C and Expressway E servers are deployed, each with redundancy for high availability. Expressway E is placed in the DMZ between the firewall to the Internet outside and the firewall to the enterprise inside , while Expressway C is placed inside the enterprise.

Figure illustrates this deployment. It also illustrates the following media flows:. For Internet-based endpoints calling one another, the media is routed through Cisco Expressway E and Expressway C back out to the Internet, as is illustrated between endpoints B and C in Figure For Internet-based endpoints calling internal endpoints, the media flows through the Expressway E and Expressway C, as is illustrated between endpoints A and C in Figure For multiple deployments of Cisco Expressway for VPN-less access in the same enterprise, with the Internet-based endpoints registered through one Expressway pair calling Internet-based endpoints registered through another Expressway pair, the media will be routed through the enterprise.

This is illustrated in Figure with a call between endpoint D and endpoint C, both registered from the Internet but through two different Expressway pairs. The media flow will be the same whether the endpoints are registered to the same Unified CM cluster or to different Unified CM clusters.

Figure illustrates an example configuration for locations and links that integrate bandwidth tracking for media flows that traverse the enterprise, while still allowing media flows over the Internet without admission control. Locations and links are created accordingly so that the enterprise locations are linked directly to a location called MPLS, with bandwidth links limited for audio and video calls mapping to the network topology.

Devices are located in one of the three sites when in the enterprise and thus have a location associated to them. These three locations represent "Internet locations" because they are locations for devices registering from the Internet to Unified CM through an Expressway pair. These locations are not interconnected with direct links. This is because calls between Expressways are routed through the enterprise and thus flow through the MPLS cloud.

These Internet locations, instead, have a link to their associated enterprise location. These links between the Internet locations and the enterprise locations should be set to unlimited bandwidth. For details about this feature, see the section on Device Mobility.

Enabling device mobility on the endpoints allows Unified CM to know when the device is registered through the Cisco Expressway or when it is registered from within the enterprise. Device mobility also enables Unified CM to provide admission control for the device as it roams between the enterprise and the Internet. However, when the endpoint is registered with any other IP address, Unified CM will use the enterprise location that is configured directly on the device or from the device pool directly configured on the device.

It is important to note that device mobility does not have to be deployed across the entire enterprise for this function to work. Configuration of Device Mobility in Unified CM is required only for the Expressway IP addresses, and the feature is enabled only on the devices that require the function that is to say, those devices registering through the Internet.

Figure illustrates an overview of the device mobility configuration.

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